This list is by no means comprehensive. I will update, correct and add to the list as often a possible. Any feedback, be it question or comment, is welcome.
Julienne – to slice into thin strips, specifically 1/8in in thickness
Dice – to chop into small, even pieces. Specified as large, medium or small. (Respectively, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8in cubed)
Mince – to chop into the smallest possible size, commonly used for herbs and members of the Allium family.
Allium – onions, garlic, shallots, chives and scallions, plus their other weird cousins
Chiffonade – specifically for leafy herbs and greens, similar in size to julienne.
Sauté – in French, jump. To cook in a pan over high heat
Bake – cooking in an oven, particularly involving breads, pastries and cousins
Roast – cooking in an oven, typically vegetables or meats at lower temperatures for longer periods of time
Braise – to cook in liquid at low heat for lengthy periods, for tough meats and veggies
mis en place – ‘everything in its place’; having all your gear/prep in the right place, ready for cooking
lardon – to cut into small pieces before cooking, specifically bacon or other cured pork product.